Spark: How to Add Multiple Columns in Dataframes (and How Not to)

There are generally two ways to dynamically add columns to a dataframe in Spark. A foldLeft or a map (passing a RowEncoder). The foldLeft way is quite popular (and elegant) but recently I came across an issue regarding its performance when the number of columns to add is not trivial. I think it’s worth to share the lesson learned: a map solution offers substantial better performance when the number of columns to be added tends to increase.

Let’s start with an example dataframe with four columns: “id”, “author”, “title”, “incipit” (the opening line of the novel). A simple dataframe with just one row might look something like:

+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+
| id|     author|        title|                      incipit|
+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+
|  6|Leo Tolstoy|Anna Karenina|Happy families are all alike |
+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+

You are given an arbitrary list of words and, for each of them, you would like to add a column (named after the word) to the original dataframe and flag with a boolean whether or not that word appear at least once in the opening line (incipit).
For a list of two words List("families", "giraffe"), the above dataframe will be transformed into the following:

+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+--------+-------+
| id|     author|        title|                      incipit|families|giraffe|
+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+--------+-------+
|  6|Leo Tolstoy|Anna Karenina|Happy families are all alike |    true|  false|
+---+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------+--------+-------+

As the list of columns is arbitrary, there are two possible approaches to this problem. I wrapper both in a method to make testing easier. First approach would be the foldLeft way:

def addColumnsViaFold(df: DataFrame, columns: List[String]): DataFrame = {
  import df.sparkSession.implicits._
  columns.foldLeft(df)((acc, col) => {
    acc.withColumn(col, acc("incipit").as[String].contains(col))
  })
}

And the second one (which involves a bit more coding) is the map way:

def addColumnsViaMap(df: DataFrame, words: List[String]): DataFrame = {
   val encoder = RowEncoder.apply(getSchema(df, words))
   df.map(mappingRows(df.schema)(words))(encoder)
}

private val mappingRows: StructType => List[String] => Row => Row =
  (schema) => (words) => (row) => {
    val addedCols: List[Boolean] = words.map {
      word => row.getString(schema.fieldIndex("incipit")).contains(word)
    }
    Row.merge(row, Row.fromSeq(addedCols))
  }

private def getSchema(df: DataFrame, words: List[String]): StructType = {
  var schema: StructType = df.schema
  words.foreach(word => schema = schema.add(word, DataTypes.BooleanType, false))
  schema
}

The code (including all tests) is available here
When we run the scala meter tests to get some idea of how the two approaches behave when dealing with 100 new columns, we get the following results1. For foldLeft (addColumnsViaFold method):
adding-column-via-fold-100
Whereas those one are the results for map (addColumnsViaMap method):
adding_columns_via_map-100
When the number of columns increases, foldLeft is taking considerably more time. If we take the number of columns to 500 the result is similar (and more dramatic)
Once again, for foldLeft :
adding-column-via-fold
And for map:
adding_columns_via_map-500
With 1000 columns, foldLeft job aborts:

[error] Error running separate JVM: java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: GC overhead limit exceeded

Probably sign that the heap is running low and the CG can’t free much memory. Still, the map based solution seems to cope much better even with 1000 row:
adding_columns_via_map
When it comes to the reason behind this different behavior, my guess would be that somehow Catalyst is not able to optimize the foldLeft operation. The below plans (explain(true)) show how the Parsed and Analyzed Logical Plans end up in a sort of nested structure.

== Parsed Logical Plan ==
Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 20 more fields]
+- AnalysisBarrier
      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 19 more fields]
         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 18 more fields]
            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 17 more fields]
               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 16 more fields]
                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 15 more fields]
                     +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 14 more fields]
                        +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 13 more fields]
                           +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 12 more fields]
                              +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 11 more fields]
                                 +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 10 more fields]
                                    +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 9 more fields]
                                       +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 8 more fields]
                                          +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 7 more fields]
                                             +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 6 more fields]
                                                +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 5 more fields]
                                                   +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 4 more fields]
                                                      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 3 more fields]
                                                         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 2 more fields]
                                                            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, Contains(incipit#12, toing) AS toing#368]
                                                               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, Contains(incipit#12, hence) AS hence#342]
                                                                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, Contains(incipit#12, four) AS four#317]
                                                                     +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, Contains(incipit#12, John) AS John#293]
                                                                        +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, Contains(incipit#12, pop) AS pop#270]
                                                                           +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, Contains(incipit#12, drunk) AS drunk#248]
                                                                              +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, Contains(incipit#12, two) AS two#227]
                                                                                 +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, Contains(incipit#12, when) AS when#207]
                                                                                    +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, Contains(incipit#12, city) AS city#188]
                                                                                       +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, Contains(incipit#12, morning) AS morning#170]
                                                                                          +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, Contains(incipit#12, way) AS way#153]
                                                                                             +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, Contains(incipit#12, pig) AS pig#137]
                                                                                                +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, Contains(incipit#12, happy) AS happy#122]
                                                                                                   +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, Contains(incipit#12, was) AS was#108]
                                                                                                      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, Contains(incipit#12, anna) AS anna#95]
                                                                                                         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, Contains(incipit#12, in) AS in#83]
                                                                                                            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, Contains(incipit#12, man) AS man#72]
                                                                                                               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, Contains(incipit#12, with) AS with#62]
                                                                                                                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, Contains(incipit#12, alike) AS alike#53]
                                                                                                                     +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, Contains(incipit#12, get) AS get#45]
                                                                                                                        +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, Contains(incipit#12, to) AS to#38]
                                                                                                                           +- Project [_1#4 AS id#9, _2#5 AS author#10, _3#6 AS title#11, _4#7 AS incipit#12]
                                                                                                                              +- LocalRelation [_1#4, _2#5, _3#6, _4#7]

== Analyzed Logical Plan ==
id: int, author: string, title: string, incipit: string, to: boolean, get: boolean, alike: boolean, with: boolean, man: boolean, in: boolean, anna: boolean, was: boolean, happy: boolean, pig: boolean, way: boolean, morning: boolean, city: boolean, when: boolean, two: boolean, drunk: boolean, pop: boolean, John: boolean, four: boolean, hence: boolean, ... 20 more fields
Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 20 more fields]
+- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 19 more fields]
   +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 18 more fields]
      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 17 more fields]
         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 16 more fields]
            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 15 more fields]
               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 14 more fields]
                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 13 more fields]
                     +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 12 more fields]
                        +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 11 more fields]
                           +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 10 more fields]
                              +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 9 more fields]
                                 +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 8 more fields]
                                    +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 7 more fields]
                                       +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 6 more fields]
                                          +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 5 more fields]
                                             +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 4 more fields]
                                                +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 3 more fields]
                                                   +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, ... 2 more fields]
                                                      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, hence#342, Contains(incipit#12, toing) AS toing#368]
                                                         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, four#317, Contains(incipit#12, hence) AS hence#342]
                                                            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, John#293, Contains(incipit#12, four) AS four#317]
                                                               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, pop#270, Contains(incipit#12, John) AS John#293]
                                                                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, drunk#248, Contains(incipit#12, pop) AS pop#270]
                                                                     +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, two#227, Contains(incipit#12, drunk) AS drunk#248]
                                                                        +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, when#207, Contains(incipit#12, two) AS two#227]
                                                                           +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, city#188, Contains(incipit#12, when) AS when#207]
                                                                              +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, morning#170, Contains(incipit#12, city) AS city#188]
                                                                                 +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, way#153, Contains(incipit#12, morning) AS morning#170]
                                                                                    +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, pig#137, Contains(incipit#12, way) AS way#153]
                                                                                       +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, happy#122, Contains(incipit#12, pig) AS pig#137]
                                                                                          +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, was#108, Contains(incipit#12, happy) AS happy#122]
                                                                                             +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, anna#95, Contains(incipit#12, was) AS was#108]
                                                                                                +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, in#83, Contains(incipit#12, anna) AS anna#95]
                                                                                                   +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, man#72, Contains(incipit#12, in) AS in#83]
                                                                                                      +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, with#62, Contains(incipit#12, man) AS man#72]
                                                                                                         +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, alike#53, Contains(incipit#12, with) AS with#62]
                                                                                                            +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, get#45, Contains(incipit#12, alike) AS alike#53]
                                                                                                               +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, to#38, Contains(incipit#12, get) AS get#45]
                                                                                                                  +- Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, Contains(incipit#12, to) AS to#38]
                                                                                                                     +- Project [_1#4 AS id#9, _2#5 AS author#10, _3#6 AS title#11, _4#7 AS incipit#12]
                                                                                                                        +- LocalRelation [_1#4, _2#5, _3#6, _4#7]

== Optimized Logical Plan ==
Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, Contains(incipit#12, to) AS to#38, Contains(incipit#12, get) AS get#45, Contains(incipit#12, alike) AS alike#53, Contains(incipit#12, with) AS with#62, Contains(incipit#12, man) AS man#72, Contains(incipit#12, in) AS in#83, Contains(incipit#12, anna) AS anna#95, Contains(incipit#12, was) AS was#108, Contains(incipit#12, happy) AS happy#122, Contains(incipit#12, pig) AS pig#137, Contains(incipit#12, way) AS way#153, Contains(incipit#12, morning) AS morning#170, Contains(incipit#12, city) AS city#188, Contains(incipit#12, when) AS when#207, Contains(incipit#12, two) AS two#227, Contains(incipit#12, drunk) AS drunk#248, Contains(incipit#12, pop) AS pop#270, Contains(incipit#12, John) AS John#293, Contains(incipit#12, four) AS four#317, Contains(incipit#12, hence) AS hence#342, ... 20 more fields]
+- InMemoryRelation [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12], true, 10000, StorageLevel(disk, memory, deserialized, 1 replicas)
      +- LocalTableScan [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12]

== Physical Plan ==
*(1) Project [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12, Contains(incipit#12, to) AS to#38, Contains(incipit#12, get) AS get#45, Contains(incipit#12, alike) AS alike#53, Contains(incipit#12, with) AS with#62, Contains(incipit#12, man) AS man#72, Contains(incipit#12, in) AS in#83, Contains(incipit#12, anna) AS anna#95, Contains(incipit#12, was) AS was#108, Contains(incipit#12, happy) AS happy#122, Contains(incipit#12, pig) AS pig#137, Contains(incipit#12, way) AS way#153, Contains(incipit#12, morning) AS morning#170, Contains(incipit#12, city) AS city#188, Contains(incipit#12, when) AS when#207, Contains(incipit#12, two) AS two#227, Contains(incipit#12, drunk) AS drunk#248, Contains(incipit#12, pop) AS pop#270, Contains(incipit#12, John) AS John#293, Contains(incipit#12, four) AS four#317, Contains(incipit#12, hence) AS hence#342, ... 20 more fields]
+- InMemoryTableScan [author#10, id#9, incipit#12, title#11]
      +- InMemoryRelation [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12], true, 10000, StorageLevel(disk, memory, deserialized, 1 replicas)
            +- LocalTableScan [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12]

Not sure whether that is somehow related to the Catalyst inability to optimize foldLeft but the explained map plan doesn’t show the same nested structure:

== Parsed Logical Plan ==
'SerializeFromObject [validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 0, id), IntegerType) AS id#83, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 1, author), StringType), true, false) AS author#84, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 2, title), StringType), true, false) AS title#85, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 3, incipit), StringType), true, false) AS incipit#86, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 4, to), BooleanType) AS to#87, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 5, get), BooleanType) AS get#88, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 6, alike), BooleanType) AS alike#89, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 7, with), BooleanType) AS with#90, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 8, man), BooleanType) AS man#91, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 9, in), BooleanType) AS in#92, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 10, anna), BooleanType) AS anna#93, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 11, was), BooleanType) AS was#94, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 12, happy), BooleanType) AS happy#95, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 13, pig), BooleanType) AS pig#96, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 14, way), BooleanType) AS way#97, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 15, morning), BooleanType) AS morning#98, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 16, city), BooleanType) AS city#99, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 17, when), BooleanType) AS when#100, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 18, two), BooleanType) AS two#101, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 19, drunk), BooleanType) AS drunk#102, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 20, pop), BooleanType) AS pop#103, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 21, John), BooleanType) AS John#104, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 22, four), BooleanType) AS four#105, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 23, hence), BooleanType) AS hence#106, ... 20 more fields]
+- 'MapElements , interface org.apache.spark.sql.Row, [StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)], obj#82: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
   +- 'DeserializeToObject unresolveddeserializer(createexternalrow(getcolumnbyordinal(0, IntegerType), getcolumnbyordinal(1, StringType).toString, getcolumnbyordinal(2, StringType).toString, getcolumnbyordinal(3, StringType).toString, StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true))), obj#81: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
      +- AnalysisBarrier
            +- Project [_1#4 AS id#9, _2#5 AS author#10, _3#6 AS title#11, _4#7 AS incipit#12]
               +- LocalRelation [_1#4, _2#5, _3#6, _4#7]

== Analyzed Logical Plan ==
id: int, author: string, title: string, incipit: string, to: boolean, get: boolean, alike: boolean, with: boolean, man: boolean, in: boolean, anna: boolean, was: boolean, happy: boolean, pig: boolean, way: boolean, morning: boolean, city: boolean, when: boolean, two: boolean, drunk: boolean, pop: boolean, John: boolean, four: boolean, hence: boolean, ... 20 more fields
SerializeFromObject [validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 0, id), IntegerType) AS id#83, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 1, author), StringType), true, false) AS author#84, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 2, title), StringType), true, false) AS title#85, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 3, incipit), StringType), true, false) AS incipit#86, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 4, to), BooleanType) AS to#87, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 5, get), BooleanType) AS get#88, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 6, alike), BooleanType) AS alike#89, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 7, with), BooleanType) AS with#90, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 8, man), BooleanType) AS man#91, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 9, in), BooleanType) AS in#92, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 10, anna), BooleanType) AS anna#93, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 11, was), BooleanType) AS was#94, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 12, happy), BooleanType) AS happy#95, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 13, pig), BooleanType) AS pig#96, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 14, way), BooleanType) AS way#97, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 15, morning), BooleanType) AS morning#98, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 16, city), BooleanType) AS city#99, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 17, when), BooleanType) AS when#100, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 18, two), BooleanType) AS two#101, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 19, drunk), BooleanType) AS drunk#102, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 20, pop), BooleanType) AS pop#103, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 21, John), BooleanType) AS John#104, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 22, four), BooleanType) AS four#105, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 23, hence), BooleanType) AS hence#106, ... 20 more fields]
+- MapElements , interface org.apache.spark.sql.Row, [StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)], obj#82: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
   +- DeserializeToObject createexternalrow(id#9, author#10.toString, title#11.toString, incipit#12.toString, StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)), obj#81: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
      +- Project [_1#4 AS id#9, _2#5 AS author#10, _3#6 AS title#11, _4#7 AS incipit#12]
         +- LocalRelation [_1#4, _2#5, _3#6, _4#7]

== Optimized Logical Plan ==
SerializeFromObject [validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 0, id), IntegerType) AS id#83, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 1, author), StringType), true, false) AS author#84, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 2, title), StringType), true, false) AS title#85, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 3, incipit), StringType), true, false) AS incipit#86, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 4, to), BooleanType) AS to#87, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 5, get), BooleanType) AS get#88, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 6, alike), BooleanType) AS alike#89, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 7, with), BooleanType) AS with#90, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 8, man), BooleanType) AS man#91, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 9, in), BooleanType) AS in#92, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 10, anna), BooleanType) AS anna#93, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 11, was), BooleanType) AS was#94, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 12, happy), BooleanType) AS happy#95, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 13, pig), BooleanType) AS pig#96, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 14, way), BooleanType) AS way#97, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 15, morning), BooleanType) AS morning#98, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 16, city), BooleanType) AS city#99, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 17, when), BooleanType) AS when#100, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 18, two), BooleanType) AS two#101, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 19, drunk), BooleanType) AS drunk#102, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 20, pop), BooleanType) AS pop#103, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 21, John), BooleanType) AS John#104, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 22, four), BooleanType) AS four#105, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 23, hence), BooleanType) AS hence#106, ... 20 more fields]
+- MapElements , interface org.apache.spark.sql.Row, [StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)], obj#82: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
   +- DeserializeToObject createexternalrow(id#9, author#10.toString, title#11.toString, incipit#12.toString, StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)), obj#81: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
      +- InMemoryRelation [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12], true, 10000, StorageLevel(disk, memory, deserialized, 1 replicas)
            +- LocalTableScan [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12]

== Physical Plan ==
*(1) SerializeFromObject [validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 0, id), IntegerType) AS id#83, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 1, author), StringType), true, false) AS author#84, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 2, title), StringType), true, false) AS title#85, if (assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]).isNullAt) null else staticinvoke(class org.apache.spark.unsafe.types.UTF8String, StringType, fromString, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 3, incipit), StringType), true, false) AS incipit#86, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 4, to), BooleanType) AS to#87, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 5, get), BooleanType) AS get#88, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 6, alike), BooleanType) AS alike#89, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 7, with), BooleanType) AS with#90, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 8, man), BooleanType) AS man#91, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 9, in), BooleanType) AS in#92, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 10, anna), BooleanType) AS anna#93, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 11, was), BooleanType) AS was#94, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 12, happy), BooleanType) AS happy#95, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 13, pig), BooleanType) AS pig#96, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 14, way), BooleanType) AS way#97, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 15, morning), BooleanType) AS morning#98, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 16, city), BooleanType) AS city#99, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 17, when), BooleanType) AS when#100, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 18, two), BooleanType) AS two#101, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 19, drunk), BooleanType) AS drunk#102, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 20, pop), BooleanType) AS pop#103, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 21, John), BooleanType) AS John#104, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 22, four), BooleanType) AS four#105, validateexternaltype(getexternalrowfield(assertnotnull(input[0, org.apache.spark.sql.Row, true]), 23, hence), BooleanType) AS hence#106, ... 20 more fields]
+- *(1) MapElements , obj#82: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
   +- *(1) DeserializeToObject createexternalrow(id#9, author#10.toString, title#11.toString, incipit#12.toString, StructField(id,IntegerType,false), StructField(author,StringType,true), StructField(title,StringType,true), StructField(incipit,StringType,true)), obj#81: org.apache.spark.sql.Row
      +- InMemoryTableScan [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12]
            +- InMemoryRelation [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12], true, 10000, StorageLevel(disk, memory, deserialized, 1 replicas)
                  +- LocalTableScan [id#9, author#10, title#11, incipit#12]

Whatever the root cause is, the conclusion is clear. As per Spark 2.3.0 (and probably previous versions) adding (dynamically) a congruous number of columns to a dataframe should be done via a map operation and not foldLeft for the reasons we’ve seen.

—————————————-

1. [I run the tests on a virtual box with three cores running Spark 2.3.0. Time in milliseconds reflects the underline infrastructure and I would expect different performance on a proper cluster. Nevertheless, that a foldLeft solution performs significantly worse that a map based solution should be an outcome independent of the underline hardware.]

One thought on “Spark: How to Add Multiple Columns in Dataframes (and How Not to)

  1. Thank you for the findings. Fold left operation comes from scala and Spark DataFrame is opaque to it. Spark treats fold left/loops as operations on DF. Spark won’t compress all of them in to a single step in physical plan because the inputs to each new column(column expressions) may be different. So spark cannot batch these calls. I hope when use cases culminate then Spark may add the required API to DataFrame/Dataset natively.

    map() is native to spark. Its a single step execution and gives more control to such custom operations.

    Like

Leave a Reply to Mahesh S Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s